Diseases, a term which refers to any discomfort, stress, or abnormal condition of any living organism. They always have different symptoms and signs. There are various types of diseases all around the world. Diseases can cause many effects and may even lead to death. Diseases can be very difficult to live with, and can cause drastic pain. Diseases slow your body down and just imagine how different you feel when you have a cold compared to normal days. The only way a disease can be dangerous is if it spread. As in spread, we mean by spreading to others and spreading throughout a person’s system.
Diseases can spread in many ways. Some diseases can be spread by physical contact. A simple cold can be transmitted by just coughing or sneezing. A way of spreading diseases internally (in your system), is when your system’s white blood cells are dying away and reduce in numbers. The particular disease you have will spread fast and eventually kill all of your white blood cells, but how do these dangerous diseases get born? Well, that’s where genes come in. Gene mutations can take big effects and generate a disease. Diseases can also be spread by genes. Most diseases are related to your genes in someway, the information in your genes are really critical and even a small change can lead to severe diseases, not only to you but to your future generation.
DNA, Genes and Diseases
Well, we know what causes diseases, which is gene mutations, so now let’s familiarize on the word DNA, before we go any further. Genes are subunits or segments of DNA. In a body there are many cells, each are responsible for a function. Nearly every single cell has a nucleus. In the nucleus there are necessary items that make you the way you are. Genetic information is stored in 46 chromosomes. Chromosomes have the information to develop functions which are stored in genes. All this makes up the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), which is a chemical information database that sends out information for making proteins a cell will need.
In other words, DNA generates or seizes the “instructions” for creating proteins. Genetics, which is the study of genes, can help in many ways. Each gene contains a particular set of instructions which is used for coding specific proteins. DNA can determine how you look like and is responsible for transmitting information from generation to generation. All the information in DNA is organized into genes, your genes provide every single detail about you, including how tall you will be, how you will act and etc.
So, if one of your ancestors were infected with a disease then that information will be stored in your genes, causing you to be infected too, and it can carry it on for generations. Genes can cause many diseases like lung and blood disorders, heart disease, diabetes etc. These types of diseases affect millions of people worldwide; some are very critical and severe while others are common and easily treated. Genetic is a very important study in these days. Scientists are now studying on why we die and how we can prolong life which is all about genetics. Another project which scientists are studying about is the ancestry project.
Tracking a gene with a particular disease can be very difficult due to the number of genes in our body. There are different types of ways to locate a gene that is caught up in a specific disease. One way to find the changes, scientists must search for DNA changes that are present more often in people who have a particular disease compared to people who do not have the disease. A new kind of genetic map, called high-density single nucleotide polymorphism map (SNP) is also another way to track genes with diseases.
When the changes have been noted, the scientists look for the susceptibility gene/genes meaning the identified particular gene that can cause the person to be infected with a disease. The susceptibility gene means that a particular gene can cause a person to be infected with a diseases. The person sometimes might not get infected by the disease but they may suffer other changes, it may be even help to protect them from a disease while sometimes it might help to increase the progression of that disease.
This term may sound very complicated but it has a very simple meaning. All the scientists and doctors know that only one tiny mutation in your genes can cause around 6000 various types of diseases. Scientists and many doctors have to be extra careful when dealing with genes and diseases because it can have side effects. A disease or diseases caused by a one mutation in your genes are known as single gene or monogenic diseases.
Hunting For Genes
We have planned to state DNA changes in person who has a particular disease and compare them to the person who doesn’t have any disease. Our goal is to find the difference between the two and explain how it can be tracked down and what changes have been made in the DNA pattern.
The nucleotide base pairs are set up in a certain pattern. ” Thymine” and “Adenine” are a pair and “Guanine” and “Cytosine” are also a pair.
A mutated DNA has different nucleotide base pattern than a normal DNA. It has susceptibility gene/genes which carry diseases. Using the detail above one can easily locate the susceptibility gene. The details above take a very long time to figure out and require patience. A tiny error can cause the scientists or doctors to start all over again, but to speed up this research scientists came up with a brilliant solution. They invented a new device which can figure out the information in a very less time.
As you may know, the device is called high-density single nucleotide polymorphism map or known as SNP. The device actually scans a profile of your genes as shown below. Scientists use it to observe pattern changes between individuals. Using this device it is possible three things
- To predict the risk of the disease/diseases you might be infected with.
- Can also predict how your body will act to a medicine.
- Find the cause of the disease and cure it more accurately.